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Indian Discoveries And Inventions – Part VI

Hindu Pride6

VELOCITY OF PLANETS PER DAY

Sun :  59’ 8” 10’’’ 13’’’’ (gopaajnayaa dinadhaama)

34” 51’’’ 36’’’’ (Chandikeso bharga snigdhosow)

Mars : 31’ 26” 29’’’ 42’’’’ (Prabhurdharaachakra paala)

Mercury : 245’ 32” 36’’’ 32’’’’ (Rageethumbururganeswara)

Jupiter:  4’ 59” 7’’’ 2’’’’ (Prajnaasanoo dharmavaan)

Venus : 96’ 7” 37’’’ 51’’’’ (Kasi saambasanna chola:)

Saturn 2’ 0” 23’’’ 32’’’’ (Prabhalapraajno nara:)

The modern values of angular motions are Earth/Sun 59.14’, Mars 31.45’, Mercury 245.7’, Juptiter 4.99’ Venus 96.13’, and Saturn 2’. INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENTIFIC HERITAGE www.iish.org 28

PUTHUMANA SOMAYAJI KARANAPADHATI (1450 AD)

 

SHAPE OF EARTH

Gaganamarudaagni jalamrunmayo mahaabhootha gunayutha:khastha: kakshaabhiraavrutho ayam bhapan charaanthascha bhoogola

Spherical earth, made of ether, fire, air, water and clay (Panchabhoothas) and thus have all the properties of the five elements, surrounded by the orbits and extending upto the sphere of stars, remain in the space (Sishyadhi vruddhi Tantra 17-1)

LALLACHARYA SISHYADHI VRUDDHI TANTRA 700 AD

Praguna paridhe: sathaamsako ganithajnaa: kathayanthi drusyathe prathi bhaathi thadaa samaa mahee vishaye yanthra thathaiva gamyathe

Mathematicians say that one hundredth of the cirucumference of the earth appears to be plane. So, that portion of the earth appears to be plane to an observer (Sishyadhi vruddhi Tantra 20-35)

LALLACHARYA SISHYADHI VRUDDHI TANTRA 700 AD

 

ROTATION OF EARTH – I

Pranenaithi kalaam bhooryadi tharhi kutho vrajeth kamadhyaanam aavarthana murvyaa schenna pathanthi samucchrayaa: kasmath

If earth rotates at a speed of 1’ of an angle in 4 seconds, will not the things on the loft fall? Where does the earth go in this speed? (Brahmasphuta siddhanta 11-17).

BRAHMAGUPTA BRAHMASPHUTA SIDDHANTA 629 AD

 

FOUR QUADRANTS OF EARTH

Udayo yo lankaayaam soasthamayo: savithureva siddhapure madhyahno yavakotyaam romake vishaye ardharaathramsyaath

When it is Sunrise in Lanka, the same Sun sets in Siddhapura. (Gautimaala). It is noon in Yavakoti (Korea) and midnight in Romaka (Rome) (Aryabhateeyam 4-13).

ARYABHATA -I ARYABHATEEYA (499 AD)

 

GLOBE

Samavrutthaprushtamaanam sookshmam golam prasaadhya daarumayam sthagithaarka samaankitha kaala bhogarekaadvaye paridhov

Perfectly circular throughout and spherical, made of wood, marked with degrees and minutes, incorporated with lines both longitude and latitude at ends, is the golayantra. (Panchasiddhantika 14-23)

VARAHAMIHIRA PANCHASIDDHANTIKA (505 AD)

Kaashtamayam samavruthham samanthatha: samagurum laghum golam paaradathaila jalaistham bhramayeth svadhiyaa cha kaalasamam

Made of wood, fully circular, uniform, equally dense throughout and spherical shaped golayantra, which rotates at a fixed rate of time as the earth does by the help of mercury, oil and water, by the application of our intelligent calculation, is the golayantra-Globe.

……….

Nrushiyojanam, njilaa bhoovyaaso

8000 Nr units is equal to one yojana. The diameter of earth is 1050 yojana.

ARYABHATA-I ARYABHATEEYA (499 AD)

 

ROTATION OF EARTH – II

Ku ngi si bu nlru shru khru praak

Eastward rotations of the earth in one Yuga is 1582237500

Anuulomagathirnoustha: pasyathyachalam vilomagam yadvath achalaani bhaani thadvath samapaschimagaani lankaayaam

Just as a man in a boat moving forward sees the stationary objects as moving backward, so are the stationary stars and celestial bodies seen by the people at equator (Lanka) as moving exactly towards west.

Ku aavarthaaschaapi naakshathraa:

The rotation of the earth is the cause of days (Aryabhateeyam 3-5).

ARYABHATA-I ARYABHATEEYA (499 AD)

 

MERIDIAN

Lankaayaamekam sankukeelam prathishtaapya thenaikam soothraagram baddhvaa punarmerorupari thadagramanyath baddhvaa yathaayathaa drusyatha….. thadvath bhoomaavapi kaachidrekha lankaatha: kharapuratha….. merumasthakaanavagaahya sthithaa saa punarathra desaanthara vidhaayini syaath

Fix a pole in Lanka, tie thread on that, take the other end to the North pole, tie it there also, then one can see the line of the thread passing through Lanka, Kharapuri, Arctic point and so many other countries upto the top of Meru. This is international meridian line (Sankaranarayana on Laghubhaskareeya I-23)

SANKARANARAYANA I LAGHUBHASKAREEYA (950 AD)

 

GRAVITY

Aakrushti sakthischa mahee thayaa yath khastham guru svaabhimukham svasakthyaa aakrushyathe thathpathatheeva bhaathi same samanthaath kva pathathyayam khe:  

This earth attracts whatever solid materials are in the space, by her own force of attraction towards her (earth). All those subjected to this attractional force fall, to the earth. Due to equal force of attraction among the celestial bodies, where can each among them fall? (Siddhanta siromani Bhuvanakosham 6)

BHASKARA II SIDDHANTA SIROMANY (1114 AD)

 

MERIDIAN AND TIME

Desaanthara ghatee kshunnah madhyaa bhukthir dyuchaarinaam shashtyaa bhaktham runam praachyaam rekhaayaa: paschime dhanam.

The time is calculated based on the meridian. Divide the time by 60… and the longitude is calculated. Towards the east subtract and towards the west add the number (Laghubhaskareeyam 1-31)

BHASKARA I LAGHUBHASKAREEYA (628 AD)

 

MERIDIAN AND TIME

Panchaasathaa thribhisthryamsaamyuthairyojanaischa naaddyekaa samapoorva paschimasthairnithyam sodhyaa cha deyaa cha

One nadi for every 53 1/3yojanas has to be deducted or added (to Ujjaini) by the people in places east and west, respectively of the Ujjaini meridian. (Panchasiddhantika 9-10)

VARAHAMIHIRA – PANCHASIDDHANTIKA (605 AD)

 

ECLIPSE-I

Kimartham asura: kaschidraahurnaama saimhikeyoarkam chandram cha grasatha ithi srooyathe sraapi pouraanika sruthireva! ka: punariha raahurithyuchyathe

What does it mean that Asura is responsible for the eclipse? Others say that a snake Rahu swallows the Sun and the Moon! Those are puranic stories! Then what is called the Rahu?

SANKARANARAYANA COMMENTRAY TO LAGHUBHASKAREEYA 950 AD

Cchadayathi sasi sooryam sasinam mahathee cha bhoocchaayaa

Moon covers (shadows) the Sun and the great shadow of the earth covers the moon (which causes the eclipse)

ARYABHATAI ARYABHATEEYA (499 AD)

 

ECLIPSE-II

Atha eva bhoocchayaa chandragrahanasya kaaranam

That is why it is said that the shadow of the earth is the cause for the lunar eclipse.

SANKARANARAYANA COMMENTRAY TO LAGHUBHASKAREEYA

Asuro yadi maayayaa yutho niyatho athigrastheethi they mantham ganithena katham sa labhyathe grahakrutha parva vinaa kathanchana

If you are of the opinion that an artifical demon is always the cause of an eclipse by swallowing, then how is it that an eclipse can be determined by means of calculations. Moreover why is then not an eclipse occur on a day other than the day of new or full moon (Sishyadhi vruddhi Tantra 20-22)

LALLACHARYA SISHYADHI VRUDDHI TANTRA 700 AD